Quality of life and social support for informal caregivers of dependent patients in Spain: A cross-sectional study
Quality of life and social support for informal caregivers of dependent patients in Spain: A cross-sectional study. (English)

Palabras clave

Enfermería en Salud Comunitaria
Cuidador Informal
Calidad de vida
Apoyo Social

Cómo citar

Gómez Díaz, M., Alguazas-Martínez, I., Balanza-Galindo, S., Sánchez-Gálvez, J., & Morales-Moreno, I. (2024). Quality of life and social support for informal caregivers of dependent patients in Spain: A cross-sectional study. RqR Quantitative and Qualitative Community Nursing Research, 12(1). Recuperado a partir de https://rqr.seapaonline.org/index.php/rqr/article/view/57


Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the quality of life and perception of social support among informal caregivers of depen-
dent patients.
Methods: A cross-sectional study in the South-east of Spain was conducted. This research employed a comprehensive questionnaire and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support to assess caregiver variables in relation to quality of life. Ethical considerations were strictly observed, and statistical analysis utilized SPSS software, with a significance level of p<.05.
Results: A total of 80 caregivers of dependent patients took part in the study. The informal caregiver was typically a middle-aged man,
who was married, the son of the dependent patient, had no other work, had only completed primary education, and lived with the patient.
The caregiver spends an average of 16 hours per day providing care and at least for 4.75 years.
Factors such as living with the dependent person, lacking external support, and significant caregiving hours were associated with lower
quality of life and perceived social support. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between quality of life and perceived social support (r=.670; p<.001).
Conclusion: Caregivers with a stronger perception of social support reported a higher quality of life. Reinforcing social support such as institutions and networks could improve the quality of life and health outcomes perceived by caregivers, making it a necessary intervention. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the significance of promoting and strengthening the social support network to enhance the caregiver’s quality of life and health status.

Quality of life and social support for informal caregivers of dependent patients in Spain: A cross-sectional study. (English)


Euroestat. Your key to European statistics. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2023 Jul 31]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/

Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Dependency ratio of the population over 64 years of age. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2023 Jul 31]. Available from https://www.ine.es/jaxiT3/Datos.htm?t=1455. Spanish

Huang S, Zhao Q, Liu X, Jin Y. The role of care-giver and mental health for older adults with disabilities: A mixed-method study. Ageing and Society. 2022;1-25. doi:10.1017/S0144686X21001409

Pérez YV, Andrade AME. [Psychosocial impact and burden on informal caregivers of people with end-stage chronic renal failure]. Rev Cub Salud Pública. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2023 Jul 31]; 40(1):3-17. Available from http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0864-34662014000100002. Spanish.

Morales I. Analysis of the influence on the configuration of informal care and self-care systems in Murcia. Dissertation. Spain: UCAM; 2011. Available from: https://repositorio.ucam.edu/handle/10952/48?locale-attribute=en

Rodríguez-González AM, Rodríguez-Míguez E, Duarte-Pérez A, Díaz-Sanisidro, E, Barbosa-Álvarez A, Clavería A. Cross-sectional observational study of burden in informal caregivers and determinants related to care for dependent people. Aten Primaria. 2017;49(3):156-65. doi:10.1016/j.aprim.2016.05.006

Koopman E, Heemskerk M, van der Beek AJ, Coenen P. Factors associated with caregiver burden among adult (19–64 years) informal caregivers – An analysis from Dutch Municipal Health Service data. Health Soc Care Community. 2020;28(5):1578-89. doi:10.1111/hsc.12982

Akgun-Citak E, Attepe-Ozden S, Vaskelyte A, van Bruchem-Visser RL, Pompili S, Kav S, et al. Challenges and needs of informal caregivers in elderly care: Qualitative research in four European countries, the TRACE project. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2020;87:103971. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2019.103971

Almagiá E. [Social support, stress and health]. Psicol Salud. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2023 Jul 31]; 14(2):237-43. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Enrique_Barra_Almagia/publication/235746796_Social_support_stress_and_health_Apoyo_social_estres_y_salud/links/09e4151311a000386c000000/Social-support-stress-and-health-Apoyo-social-estres-y-salud.pdf.

Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley, GK. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. J Pers Assess. 1988; 52(1):30-41. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2

Pinto Santuber C, Lara Jaque R. [Psychometric properties of Zimet's perceived social support scale in elderly people in primary health care]. Index. 2014;23(1-2):85-9. doi:10.4321/S1132-12962014000100018

World Medical Association. WMA declaration of helsinki –Ethical Principles for medical research involving human subjects. [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2023 Jul 31]. Available from https://www.wma.net/policies-post/ wma- declaration- of- helsinki- ethical- principles- for- medical- research-involving- human-subjects/

Ruiz JCR, Castillo MIA. The overload of informal caregivers. Metas de Enferm. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2023 Jul 31]; 17:12. Available from https://medes.com/publication/87196. Spanish.

Mendoza Sánchez RM, Hernández García EL, Medina Pérez M, Company Sancho MC, Gómez Perera ML, Estrada Suárez L, et al. Profile of the main caregiver in the health area of Gran Canaria. Ene. 2014;8(2). doi:10.4321/S1988-348X2014000200002

Brilhante Batista I, da Silva Marinho J, Pereira Brito TR, Alves Guimarães MS, da Silva Neto LS, Pagotto V, et al. Quality of life of family caregivers of bedridden older adults. Acta Paul Enferm. 2023;36:eAPE00361. doi:10.37689/acta-ape/2023AO003611

Rodríguez JA, Samper T, Marin S, Sigalat E, Moreno AE. Male informal caregivers in the city of Valencia. An experience of reciprocity. OBETS. 2018;13(2):645-70. doi:10.14198/OBETS2018.13.2.08.

Estrada Fernández ME, Gil Lacruz AI, Gil Lacruz M, Viñas López A. Dependence: effects on family health. Aten Primaria. 2018; 50(1):23-34. doi:10.1016/j.aprim.2016.12.007

Mosquera Metcalfe I, Larrañaga Padilla I, Del Río Lozano M, Calderón Gómez C, Machón Sobrado M, García Calvente MM. Gender inequalities in the impacts of informal care of dependent elderly in Gipuzkoa: Study CUIDAR-Se. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2023 Jul 31]; 93, e1-e13. Available from: https://www.mscbs.gob.es/biblioPublic/publicaciones/recursos_propios/resp/revista_cdrom/VOL93/ORIGINALES/RS93C_201901002.pdf.

De Valle-Alonso MJ, Hernández-López IE, Zúñiga-Vargas ML, Martínez-Aguilera P. Overload and Burnout in informal caregivers of the elderly. Enfermería Universitaria. 2015;12(1):19-27. doi:10.1016/j.reu.2015.05.004

Larrañaga I, Martínb U, Bacigaluped A, Begiristáina JM, Valderramaf MJ, Arregib B. [Impact of informal care on the health and quality of life of caregivers: analysis of gender inequalities].Gac Sanit. [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2023 Mar 12]; 22(5):443-50. Available from http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/gs/v22n5/original7.pdf.

Oliva J, Vilaplana C, Osuna R. [The social value of informal care provided to elderly people in a situation of dependency in Spain]. Gac Sanit. 2011;25:108-14. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2011.09.005

Flores E, Rivas E, Seguel F. [Level of burden in the performance of the role of family caregiver of an elderly person with severe dependence]. Cienc Enferm. 2012;18(1):29-41. doi:10.4067/S0717-95532012000100004

dos Santos Albuquerque Melo M, Silva Coura A, Xavier de França IS, Rodrigues Feijão A, da Silva Leite Freitas CC, da Silva Aragónet J. Overload and quality of life of caregivers of bedridden people at home. Acta Paul Enferm. 2022;35:eAPE02087. doi:10.37689/acta-ape/2022AO020877

Yi-Chen C, Hsu-Chun L, Chia-Lin L, Chia-Hung L, Jung-Lung H, Chai-Yu L, et al. The mediating effects of leisure engagement on relationships between caregiving stress and subjective wellbeing among family caregivers of persons with cognitive impairment: A cross-sectional study. Geriatr Nurs. 2020;41(2):124-31. doi:10.1016/j.gerinurse.2019.08.017

Sandy PT, Kgole JC, Mavundla RN. Support needs of caregivers: case studies in South Africa. Int Nurs Rev. 2013;60(3):344-50. doi:10.1111/inr.12022

Hango D. Support received by caregivers in Canada. Insights on Canadian Society. [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2023 Jul 31]; 8. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75 006 X. Available from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/75-006-x/2020001/article/00001-eng.htm

Ruppanner, L, Bostean, G. Who Cares? Caregiver Well-being in Europe. Eur Sociol Rev. 2014;30(5):655–69. doi:10.1093/esr/jcu065

Schüz B, Czerniawski A, Davie N, Miller L, Quinn MG, King C, et al. Leisure Time Activities and Mental Health in Informal Dementia Caregivers. Appl Psychol Health Well-Being. 2015;7(2):230-48. doi:10.1111/aphw.12046

Marsack-Topolewski CN. Mediating Effects of Social Support on Caregiver Burden and Quality of Life for Compound and Noncompound Caregivers, FAM SOC. 2020;26. doi:10.1177/1044389420947229

Henderson J, Denny K. The resilient child, human development and the “postdemocracy”. BioSocieties. 2015;10:352–78. doi:10.1057/biosoc.2015.24

Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2024 RqR Quantitative and Qualitative Community Nursing Research